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One of my smallest changes has been among the best.

I've worked on Way of Steel for almost a decade now, in my quest for RPG combat nirvana. There's a few novel mechanics I'm proud, some of which required tons of testing and tweaking to get right. Weirdly enough, one of the best and most portable (to other systems) mechanics required little more than a change in name: Out with Hit Points, and in with Resolve.
LET IT BE RESOLVED
Resolve is a Hero (PC)'s will to fight. It's an intentionally vague amalgamation of physical and mental strain. I describe it as Hit Points, Stamina, Mana, and Sanity all rolled into one. Getting slashed by a sword in battle reduces Resolve. Performing extraordinary combat Stunts or spellcasting costs Resolve. Most importantly, however- the problem that the GM in me was looking to solve- is that doing damn near anything strenuous outside of battle can cost Resolve (or restore it) if the GM decides:
*Heroes insist on hiking up a mountain in plate armor at noon in summertime? Dock them Resolve. They won't be at full strength to face the Wyvern.
*Heroes repeatedly brute forcing a skill check like a lock pick or bending bars? Make each attempt cost Resolve. Intense concentration can be just as draining as intense physical exertion.
*Ranger bags a buck at camp and makes venison steaks for dinner? Extra Resolve recovery.
ANOTHER TOOL IN THE GM TOOLBAG
Of course, this is just another tool in the GM's toolbag to use when they feel it is appropriate. For me it serves as a way to "fail forward"- bypassing the puzzle lock on the door by hacking it apart with axes is a viable "solution", but it can have a cost that makes solving the puzzle more attractive. Resolve costs or boons are also a very useful GM "gas pedal" that I can lay on or let off to balance/adjust difficulty on the fly. I run a somewhat more realistic low fantasy world (to match the grit of Way of Steel combat), and oftentimes I'd rather leave a brick of fancy cheese on the mess hall table than a health potion.
Like any tool, this can be misused and turned into a way to railroad Heroes, or just become an exercise in bookkeeping. But honestly, all that Resolve is doing here is making the primary Hero resource much more flexible than Hit Points.
I'M NOT THAT CLEVER
Note: Nothing I've done with Resolve is in any way/shape/form groundbreaking. Other games have done it. I just wanted to encourage this community to consider the myriad benefits it offers through little more than a change of vocabulary and a shift in thinking.
MORE REASONS TO USE IT
Some other benefits of Resolve that I've observed over the last two years using it:
*Speed of Play. This is huge. Heroes (and bad guys too) spend Resolve to use Stunt cards, their main special abilities. This means that their "health bars" are always trickling down, even in a defensive struggle where no one is landing meaningful strikes. It basically is a big sand timer for combat, keeping battles (usually) inside my goal of 30-60 minutes.
*Easy battles don't feel like cakewalks, as Heroes will still likely expend significant amounts of Resolve. (In WoS, you never really fight at less than 100%, because things can go wrong very quickly.)
*"Realism". You don't need magical healing. A warm meal, a bard's song, a priest's blessing... all these things restore Resolve just as well as ye olde healthe potione. In fact, you can do some fun things with religion- did that priest ACTUALLY heal you with divine magic, or did his gentle demeanor and familiar prayer just lift your spirits? Who knows?
*"Realistic" fast healing. Nothing breaks my suspension of disbelief faster than Heroes who go from the brink of death to "completely fine" after 8 hours in a sleeping bag in some frigid cave.
*In my experience as a (shitty) amateur MMA fighter, "Resolve" is probably closer to reality than HP and Stamina. Squeezing someone's torso brings you closer to the end of your ability to fight. So does getting punched in the ribs. They aren't exactly the same, but putting aside "injury debuffs" the net effect is pretty indistinguishable, and IMO more accurate than in the UFC and boxing video games I used to play which had separate Stamina and Health bars.
DIE BETTER
Where Resolve really shines is when you run out of it. Different systems and GM's can take it in different directions, but I do something called Fall or Fight.
I have talked about FoF in more detail elsewhere (see the first link at the bottom), but the short version is that when you hit 0 Resolve instead of being dead or unconscious, a Hero chooses to Fall or Fight On. Falling simply means you tap out- you can't fight anymore; you're out of the battle. Roleplay it however you like- unconscious, curled in the fetal position clutching wounds, crawling for the exit, etc. But you're out for the rest of battle. If everyone Falls, prep your "escape from the troll kitchen". Perhaps the bandits simply rob the Heroes, and a new nemesis is born. Bottom line, many more options for the GM than a TPK.
Instead of Falling, a Hero can bravely choose to Fight On, risking permanent disability and/or death to rage against the dying of the light. They draw one (or pick from several) Fight On cards, which tell them how their Hero reacts to impending doom. The front side of the card (the only side they will see for now) has some flavor text and the immediate effects (mechanical bonuses and penalties). If they survive the battle (-10 = death in WoS), the Hero then flips to the reverse of the card to see the consequences of the extreme duress.
As an example, "Guardian Angel" gives the Hero a significant chance to avoid the final lethal blow. After the battle they might take stock of their religious beliefs (or lack thereof). In any event, that amulet that just so happened to deflect the deadly arrow is trashed.
This system (A) is awesome and (B) works as a reverse death spiral and buffer to player death, making battles have non-binary outcomes other than flawless victory or death. Consequences, man. There is a ton of room to do interesting narrative things and create lasting grudges, phobias, scars, tales of glory. Heroes actually have some skin in the game, risking lasting consequences to stand fast beside their comrades in arms.
If you'd like to read more on Fall or Fight, the top link below is a good explanation, albeit of an older concept. The first draft of the new double-sided cards is here, plus older cards and an explanation of the current system.
Of course, all of these cards are written in Way of Steel parlance that may not make sense to y'all, but I think the general idea of each one shines through. On that note, if anyone here would be interested in helping me port the FoF cards over to D&D 5E, shoot me a message. I think they might get a kick out of em at /dndbehindthescreen, and I've been out of the D&D game too long to get things right.
Old post- A Better Way to Die: Fall or Fight
Newest Fight On Cards
Fall Or Fight v2 Explained
Old Fight On Cards
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MAME 0.220

[ Removed by reddit in response to a copyright notice. ]
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Gigabyte Z390 M, OpenCore, and Hackintosh Catalina: A Beginner’s Guide and Key Resources

Gigabyte Z390 M, OpenCore, and Hackintosh Catalina: A Beginner’s Guide and Key Resources
My setup!

Introduction:

I realise build guides are a dime a dozen, but it’s always reassuring to see one by someone who’s used a combination of components as similar to yours as possible, and even more so when that someone happens to be a newbie. So here I am, with the steps I followed to get macOS Catalina up and running on the tower I’d built.
I’ll take this step by step, and will make an effort to avoid confusing language. Of course, if you have any questions, feel free to ask, after you’ve read the whole thing! Just bear in mind that I, too, am a novice.
Moreover, I have next to no experience with Ryzen builds, or prebuilt machines like laptops, so again, this guide is specific to modern Intel builds and chipsets. If you need help selecting components, look no further than this brilliant, concise primer by Mykola. My guide is by and large limited to the processes I followed, though I’ll try to include alternative steps for anyone that may need them.
Lastly, this guide may be extra handy for Indian Hackintosh enthusiasts — all my components were purchased in in India itself. So if you’re a fellow Indian interested in building one of these for yourself, there’s a good chance these components are readily available for you without having to import anything. But first, some vanity shots:

My old faithful 1080p ASUS monitor, I hope to replace it with a better 1440p 100% sRGB one soon!

Pretty low-end as far as cases go, but very practical! NZXT cases are quite expensive in my country...

The innards! It's actually a lot better cable-managed than it looks here.
The innards! It's actually a lot better cable-managed than it looks here.
Before You Get Started:
You HAVE to be a computer enthusiast, and have basic knowledge of how computers work. It’s crucial that you understand that there are no shortcuts to this.
Morgonaut’s videos on YouTube are an example of what not to do — if you blindly follow what someone spoonfeeds you without truly understanding why something works the way it works, you’re setting yourself up for failure, and we won’t be able to help you because you wouldn’t be able to tell us what you’ve done.
This also applies to tonymacx86 tools like Unibeast; they take user-intervention and transparency out of a process that absolutely depends on both of those to work reliably.
Hackintoshing is a precise process to begin with, and what works for someone else may not necessarily work for you. Take the time and effort to read through every line of the more specific guides I’ll be linking further ahead, and toggle exactly what is specific to your hardware. What you don’t get, Hackintosh and its Discord channel will be happy to lend you a hand with.
Don’t be anxious! It’s an intimidating prospect when you’re doing it for the first time, but once you’ve got everything up and running, you’ll realise that the process is actually pretty straightforward.

The Hardware:

The first thing you’ll need to do is, of course, build a computer, so build a computer, I did. Here are my components:
The parts that will affect your Hackintosh setup:
  • Motherboard — Gigabyte Z90 M
  • Processor — Intel i7-9700K
  • Graphics Card — Sapphire Pulse Radeon RX 580
  • Storage — WD Black SN750 (500GB)
  • WiFi + Bluetooth PCIe Card — Fenvi HB-1200
The parts that normally won’t:
  • RAM — 32GB, 2400MHz, DDR4 (Crucial CU16GU2400, 16GB x 2)
  • Power Supply — Antec NeoEco 650M (650W, rated Bronze)
  • CPU Cooler — Antec C400 Elite
  • Case — Corsair SPEC 01
  • Fans — Antec Spark 120mm x 4 (that’s a total of five fans, including the one that comes with the case)
You’ll notice that I’m using a Z390 motherboard, something Mykola explicitly advises against in the guide I’d linked above. He’s right — the best motherboard for Hackintosh computers is the slightly older Z370 series. It supports all the same processors that the Z390 chipset does, though you’ll need a BIOS update to run 9th gen Coffee Lake chips. More importantly, Z370 boards come with native NVRAM support, which is something macOS requires to function smoothly.
The Z390 motherboards don’t have native NVRAM, but there’s a workaround to emulate it. If you’re starting from scratch, this becomes an unnecessary step, so stick with the Z370 series. However if you, like me, weren’t aware of this at the time of buying your components, no stress! The workaround to emulate NVRAM support is a rather easy one.
Besides this, the other oddity you’ll notice is the Fenvi HB-1200. Here’s the deal: MacOS normally plays well only with very specific Broadcom cards for perfect WiFi and Bluetooth connectivity. So if you want AirDrop and Handoff to function properly on your Hackintosh build, you’ll need one of these things. Installing them is very easy, though, and if you’re unable to find one locally, AliExpress sells these in great abundance. It’ll take about 2-3 weeks to reach you, though. Until then, your only option for internet connectivity is via Ethernet. A more high-end alternative of the same is the Fenvi T919.
Finally, macOS has no built-in framework for controlling the RGB lighting in your system. If you want to control the lighting via your motherboard’s RGB header, you’ll have to do it via BIOS. If even this option isn’t available, a hardware remote is your best bet*, I’m using this one.
*You can mess with your RGB settings via Windows and have your settings persist when you reboot into macOS, but for this, Windows will have to be installed on a partition in the same disk as macOS. This often causes a number of complications and is generally not recommended.
We now move on to the nitty and the gritty, the part of this process that puts the “Hack” in Hackintosh:

Setting up macOS Catalina:

Prerequisites:
The recommended method for getting started with a Hackintosh build — the vanilla method — involves having an actual Mac device around. It gives you the simplest, most reliable, and trustworthy way to download a fresh copy of macOS Catalina, straight from Apple’s own App Store. The download itself is free and won’t cost you anything. If you don’t own a Mac, borrow a friends’ — this way, you can also natively format your Catalina USB drive to a Mac-compatible format using macOS’ built-in tools, rather than having to rely on third-party methods.
With this in mind, the guide I’d followed is the OpenCore Vanilla Desktop Guide, once again by the brilliant Mykola. I’ll be referring to this multiple times, and will straight up link directly to it where I don’t have anything specific to my experience to add. Remember, my guide is sort of like an addon to Mykola’s Vanilla guide, and is NOT meant to act as a replacement.
A proven alternative method for those don’t have access to a Mac is Midi Jari’s Internet Install method. I have no experience with this, though, so I can’t really comment on what this entails. But it’s also a trusted method and has produced successful results for many folks here, so don’t stress out unduly! It’s just not something that I personally have used, given I simply borrowed my girfriend’s MacBook for this purpose.
The only other hardware you’ll need is a 16GB USB drive. Until macOS Mojave — the previous version — 8GB USB drives were enough to hold macOS, but unfortunately, Catalina is slightly larger than 8GB, so 16GB drives are the new minimum.
A Brief Prologue:
Here’s a grossly oversimplified primer on how macOS (or any OS, really) boots on a Hackintosh system:
BIOS —> Bootloader —> macOS
Similarly, let’s take this step by step.

BIOS:

First, your motherboard’s BIOS fires up. This is normally where the “Gigabyte” or “Asus” or whichever else company’s logo pops up, depending on your motherboard’s make. Here, repeatedly tapping on a button — which can vary from manufacturer to manufacturer — should take you to your BIOS’s settings. This is where your setup process begins.
MacOS requires a specific set of BIOS settings to be toggled, which can be a little daunting for first timers. Luckily, Mykola’s got your standard BIOS settings covered in his guide, so simply reset your BIOS to its optimised defaults, and make the necessary changes he’s highlighted here.
Once this is done, we move on to the big one:

The Bootloader, OpenCore:

The bootloader is the key to achieving a successful Hackintosh build, and this is where most of your efforts will be directed.
Ordinarily, on most Windows computers and actual Macs, the bootloader is invisible; you wouldn’t even know it exists beyond the existence of the loading screen. Given we’re off the beaten path, we will need to use a custom bootloader put together by several smart people in the community. This custom bootloader is what will let us boot macOS on non-Apple hardware.
Until very recently, Clover had been the standard bootloader for all Hackintosh builds. It’s well-documented, has a GUI that you’re used to operating, and comes with thousands upon thousands of guides and years of documented online support. It is also, however, nearing the end of its life. A lot of its code is deprecated, unmaintained, and can break anytime.
This brings us to OpenCore — a spanking new bootloader that many believe is the future of Hackintoshing. It’s designed to be a whole lot more flexible than Clover, and uses more modern protocols to offer a far stronger degree of futureproofiness — and dramatically faster boot times, to boot. There’s certainly a lot about it I don’t fully understand, but it’s been painstakingly documented over here in acidenthera’s GitHub page, so do pop over and give it a read if you’re interested.
It’s in the final stages of beta testing — v0.5.3 at the time of writing this — and aims to be released as a stable, public v1.0 build in the coming weeks. Given it’s so close to release, as long as you’re not running a laptop or a prebuilt, OpenCore will run just fine for you once properly setup. Seriously — if you’re not scared of a more transparent process where you have far more control over what your bootloader will end up doing, OpenCore is the way to go.
At this juncture, I’ll simply redirect you to Mykola’s guide, full on. It summarises the process of setting up OpenCore as simply as possible without skimping on important details.
I do, however, have three points to add:
  1. In this guide I’m writing, I’d originally wanted to include an issue specific to my motherboard model that Mykola walked me through because it wasn’t in the guide (and I’m a newbie), but he went ahead and added it to his guide so idiots like me wouldn’t run into the same problem in future; the parts of his guide referring to CFG Lock settings in the configuration file and the BIOS allude to this.
  2. Once you clone/download OpenCorePKG, use macbuild.tool to compile your copy of OpenCore. Once the process finishes, you’ll find the folder you need in the same folder, under:
Binaries > Release > OpenCore-0.5.3-RELEASE.zip (the contents of this zip file are what you ultimately need)
  1. HfsPlus.efi is preferable over VboxHfs.efi. This is because HfsPlus.efi is Apple’s own driver for reading HFS volumes, wheres VboxHfs.efi is a community-built, open source variant that’s quite a bit slower, but is a better bet if you prefer playing it safe and like your code open source.

My OpenCore EFI folder structure:

Here, you can also have a look at my drivers and kexts. You’ll also notice a file called SSDT-UIAC.aml which isn’t explicitly present in Mykola’s writeup, but is something every Hackintosh user needs to build for themselves. This particular file is called a custom SSDT, and I’ll get into it in just a moment.
EFI ├── APPLE │ ├── EXTENSIONS │ │ └── Firmware.scap │ └── UPDATERS │ └── MULTIUPDATER │ ├── Mac-BE088AF8C5EB4FA2.epm │ ├── Mac-BE088AF8C5EB4FA2.smc │ ├── MultiUpdater.efi │ ├── SmcFlasher.efi │ ├── flasher_base.smc │ └── flasher_update.smc ├── BOOT │ └── BOOTx64.efi └── OC ├── ACPI │ ├── SSDT-AWAC.aml │ ├── SSDT-EC-USBX.aml │ └── SSDT-UIAC.aml ├── Drivers │ ├── ApfsDriverLoader.efi │ ├── FwRuntimeServices.efi │ └── HFSPlus.efi ├── Kexts │ ├── AppleALC.kext │ │ └── Contents │ │ ├── Info.plist │ │ └── MacOS │ │ └── AppleALC │ ├── IntelMausi.kext │ │ └── Contents │ │ ├── Info.plist │ │ └── MacOS │ │ └── IntelMausi │ ├── Lilu.kext │ │ └── Contents │ │ ├── Info.plist │ │ └── MacOS │ │ └── Lilu │ ├── SMCProcessor.kext │ │ └── Contents │ │ ├── Info.plist │ │ └── MacOS │ │ └── SMCProcessor │ ├── SMCSuperIO.kext │ │ └── Contents │ │ ├── Info.plist │ │ └── MacOS │ │ └── SMCSuperIO │ ├── USBInjectAll.kext │ │ └── Contents │ │ ├── Info.plist │ │ └── MacOS │ │ └── USBInjectAll │ ├── VirtualSMC.kext │ │ └── Contents │ │ ├── Info.plist │ │ └── MacOS │ │ └── VirtualSMC │ ├── WhateverGreen.kext │ │ └── Contents │ │ ├── Info.plist │ │ └── MacOS │ │ └── WhateverGreen │ └── XHCI-unsupported.kext │ └── Contents │ └── Info.plist ├── OpenCore.efi ├── Tools │ └── Shell.efi └── config.plist 
You can find my config.plist over here, but once again, be warned — no good ever came off copy-pasting without at least some superficial understanding of the flags I’ve toggled in my .plist.
Once you’ve got all of this sorted, your OpenCore folder is now ready!
Follow the instructions here to make yourself a USB drive to install macOS Catalina from (assuming you’ve already downloaded it from the App Store and quit the installer). Once the process is complete — it should take about 20 minutes — use this super handy Python script from Corp Newt to mount the EFI folder in your USB drive. Then simply copy the contents of your OpenCore folder to the EFI folder.
The final structure should be similar to the folder tree I’d shared above.

Installing macOS:

This is very straightforward. Boot from your USB drive, and when you arrive at the OpenCore selection menu, pick the partition in which your macOS installer is sitting.
It is at this point that many first timers may see an error, indicating that you’ve overlooked something while setting up your OpenCore configuration. Don’t stress! Take a picture of the error you’re seeing, keep your hardware configuration and your EFI folder’s contents handy, and approach the subreddit or the Discord channel for help. It’s more often than not just a couple flags that need to be sorted out, after which you’ll be good to go.
Once you arrive at your macOS installer, before you do anything, find Disk Utility in it (it’s in one of the menus up top) and format your storage drive to Mac OS Extended (Journaled). Once that’s done, go right ahead and install the OS onto your disk!
There’s only a few things left to do after. One of them, Mykola’s already outlined — set up your NVRAM emulation if your motherboard doesn’t have native NVRAM. The other is setting up your custom SSDT. Let me explain why this is necessary.

Setting up your Custom SSDT:

MacOS, unlike Windows, has an interesting limitation: you’re limited to a maximum of 15 USB ports, including the internal ones sitting on your motherboard for Bluetooth connectivity, etc. To make matters worse, if you have a USB 3.0/3.1 port that’s backwards compatible with USB 2.0 connectors, to the OS, that one physical port counts as two ports — one for 3.0/3.1, one for 2.0. So even if your motherboard has exactly 15 physical USB ports, if even one of them is USB 3.0, you’re likely above the limit.
A second problem is, when you install macOS on a motherboard whose firmware isn’t specifically written for supporting macOS, it gets the placement of your USB ports wrong. So your super high-speed USB 3.0 port may not even recognise a USB 3.0 device plugged into it. This may also cause issues with your Hackintosh facing weird sleep/wake issues, among others.
This is where the USBInjectAll kext* comes in. If you’ve got it enabled, it’ll force macOS to “see” all the USB ports it possibly can, including ones that don’t physically exist on your motherboard. This isn’t a solution to get all your ports working, though — this shoots you well beyond the 15 port limit (you’ll likely see around 30 ports, instead), and will more often than not cause more problems than it fixes. This brings us to the custom SSDT — this file is what “talks” to UsbInjectAll, telling it which ports to inject and which ones to not bother injecting. Once you setup your SSDT file properly, you’ll have eliminated all the ports that don’t actually exist, or that you don’t intend to use, to bring the total number of ports down to 15, or lower. After this, macOS will communicate with your motherboard’s USB ports perfectly, the way you’d want it to.
*Some motherboards, such as mine, will require UsbInjectAll.kext to be accompanied by the XHCI-unsupported.kext for it to work properly.
Here’s another super handy Corp Newt Python script to very quickly map your USB ports. If you want a clearer understanding of what USB mapping is all about, I recommend this guide for newbies, and this one for people who want an even deeper dive into the subject.
Corp Newt’s script actually provides you with an alternative — once you’ve mapped your USB ports, you can either generate your custom SSDT file and place it in your ACPI folder the way I have, or you can generate an all-new kext called USBMap that will replace both the USBInjectAll kext and your SSDT file (you’ll still need XHCI-unsupported, though). USBMap is the more recommended method, as USBInjectAll isn’t maintained all that frequently, and could stop working properly after a macOS update.
Once you set up USBMap.kext (or your custom SSDT), you’ll never need to do it again for your motherboard, so be patient, set it up, and then forget about it.

And that’s it!

You should have yourself a Hackintosh that just works. If you don’t, there’s a detailed post-install section in Mykola’s guide that should see you through common problems that occur once everything is up and running. If it doesn’t, you’re always welcome to share your troubles with us at the Discord channel, or in the subreddit. Just make sure that what you’re facing is a Hackintosh-related issue, rather than a macOS bug that’s all Apple’s fault. Enjoy!

Credits:

I really can’t thank enough all the people who patiently sat down and helped me through my various rookie mistakes and anxieties. There are certainly more names — forgive my terrible retention — but among others, u/dracoflar, u/CorpNewt, and u/fewtarius have been invaluable in teaching me how to approach the entire process and in answering all the questions I had about the same. Thanks a billion, y’all.
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Vault 7 - CIA Hacking Tools Revealed

Vault 7 - CIA Hacking Tools Revealed
March 07, 2017
from Wikileaks Website


https://preview.redd.it/9ufj63xnfdb41.jpg?width=500&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=46bbc937f4f060bad1eaac3e0dce732e3d8346ee

Press Release
Today, Tuesday 7 March 2017, WikiLeaks begins its new series of leaks on the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency.
Code-named "Vault 7" by WikiLeaks, it is the largest ever publication of confidential documents on the agency.
The first full part of the series, "Year Zero", comprises 8,761 documents and files from an isolated, high-security network situated inside the CIA's Center for Cyber Intelligence (below image) in Langley, Virgina.
It follows an introductory disclosure last month of CIA targeting French political parties and candidates in the lead up to the 2012 presidential election.
Recently, the CIA lost control of the majority of its hacking arsenal including,
  1. malware
  2. viruses
  3. trojans
  4. weaponized "zero day" exploits
  5. malware remote control systems

...and associated documentation.
This extraordinary collection, which amounts to more than several hundred million lines of code, gives its possessor the entire hacking capacity of the CIA.
The archive appears to have been circulated among former U.S. government hackers and contractors in an unauthorized manner, one of whom has provided WikiLeaks with portions of the archive.
"Year Zero" introduces the scope and direction of the CIA's global covert hacking program, its malware arsenal and dozens of "zero day" weaponized exploits against a wide range of U.S. and European company products, include,

  1. Apple's iPhone
  2. Google's Android
  3. Microsoft's Windows
  4. Samsung TVs,

...which are turned into covert microphones.
Since 2001 the CIA has gained political and budgetary preeminence over the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA).
The CIA found itself building not just its now infamous drone fleet, but a very different type of covert, globe-spanning force - its own substantial fleet of hackers.
The agency's hacking division freed it from having to disclose its often controversial operations to the NSA (its primary bureaucratic rival) in order to draw on the NSA's hacking capacities.
By the end of 2016, the CIA's hacking division, which formally falls under the agency's Center for Cyber Intelligence (CCI - below image), had over 5000 registered users and had produced more than a thousand,
hacking systems trojans viruses,
...and other "weaponized" malware.


https://preview.redd.it/3jsojkqxfdb41.jpg?width=366&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=e92eafbb113ab3e972045cc242dde0f0dd511e96

Such is the scale of the CIA's undertaking that by 2016, its hackers had utilized more codes than those used to run Facebook.
The CIA had created, in effect, its "own NSA" with even less accountability and without publicly answering the question as to whether such a massive budgetary spend on duplicating the capacities of a rival agency could be justified.
In a statement to WikiLeaks the source details policy questions that they say urgently need to be debated in public, including whether the CIA's hacking capabilities exceed its mandated powers and the problem of public oversight of the agency.
The source wishes to initiate a public debate about the security, creation, use, proliferation and democratic control of cyberweapons.
Once a single cyber 'weapon' is 'loose' it can spread around the world in seconds, to be used by rival states, cyber mafia and teenage hackers alike.

Julian Assange, WikiLeaks editor stated that,
"There is an extreme proliferation risk in the development of cyber 'weapons'.
Comparisons can be drawn between the uncontrolled proliferation of such 'weapons', which results from the inability to contain them combined with their high market value, and the global arms trade.
But the significance of 'Year Zero' goes well beyond the choice between cyberwar and cyberpeace. The disclosure is also exceptional from a political, legal and forensic perspective."

Wikileaks has carefully reviewed the "Year Zero" disclosure and published substantive CIA documentation while avoiding the distribution of 'armed' cyberweapons until a consensus emerges on the technical and political nature of the CIA's program and how such 'weapons' should analyzed, disarmed and published.

Wikileaks has also decided to Redact (see far below) and Anonymize some identifying information in "Year Zero" for in depth analysis. These redactions include ten of thousands of CIA targets and attack machines throughout,
Latin America Europe the United States

While we are aware of the imperfect results of any approach chosen, we remain committed to our publishing model and note that the quantity of published pages in "Vault 7" part one ("Year Zero") already eclipses the total number of pages published over the first three years of the Edward Snowden NSA leaks.

Analysis

CIA malware targets iPhone, Android, smart TVs
CIA malware and hacking tools are built by EDG (Engineering Development Group), a software development group within CCI (Center for Cyber Intelligence), a department belonging to the CIA's DDI (Directorate for Digital Innovation).
The DDI is one of the five major directorates of the CIA (see above image of the CIA for more details).
The EDG is responsible for the development, testing and operational support of all backdoors, exploits, malicious payloads, trojans, viruses and any other kind of malware used by the CIA in its covert operations world-wide.
The increasing sophistication of surveillance techniques has drawn comparisons with George Orwell's 1984, but "Weeping Angel", developed by the CIA's Embedded Devices Branch (EDB), which infests smart TVs, transforming them into covert microphones, is surely its most emblematic realization.
The attack against Samsung smart TVs was developed in cooperation with the United Kingdom's MI5/BTSS.
After infestation, Weeping Angel places the target TV in a 'Fake-Off' mode, so that the owner falsely believes the TV is off when it is on. In 'Fake-Off' mode the TV operates as a bug, recording conversations in the room and sending them over the Internet to a covert CIA server.
As of October 2014 the CIA was also looking at infecting the vehicle control systems used by modern cars and trucks. The purpose of such control is not specified, but it would permit the CIA to engage in nearly undetectable assassinations.
The CIA's Mobile Devices Branch (MDB) developed numerous attacks to remotely hack and control popular smart phones. Infected phones can be instructed to send the CIA the user's geolocation, audio and text communications as well as covertly activate the phone's camera and microphone.
Despite iPhone's minority share (14.5%) of the global smart phone market in 2016, a specialized unit in the CIA's Mobile Development Branch produces malware to infest, control and exfiltrate data from iPhones and other Apple products running iOS, such as iPads.
CIA's arsenal includes numerous local and remote "zero days" developed by CIA or obtained from GCHQ, NSA, FBI or purchased from cyber arms contractors such as Baitshop.
The disproportionate focus on iOS may be explained by the popularity of the iPhone among social, political, diplomatic and business elites.
A similar unit targets Google's Android which is used to run the majority of the world's smart phones (~85%) including Samsung, HTC and Sony. 1.15 billion Android powered phones were sold last year.
"Year Zero" shows that as of 2016 the CIA had 24 "weaponized" Android "zero days" which it has developed itself and obtained from GCHQ, NSA and cyber arms contractors.
These techniques permit the CIA to bypass the encryption of, WhatsApp
  1. Signal
  2. Telegram
  3. Wiebo
  4. Confide
  5. Cloackman
...by hacking the "smart" phones that they run on and collecting audio and message traffic before encryption is applied.
CIA malware targets Windows, OSx, Linux, routers
The CIA also runs a very substantial effort to infect and control Microsoft Windows users with its malware.
This includes multiple local and remote weaponized "zero days", air gap jumping viruses such as "Hammer Drill" which infects software distributed on CD/DVDs, infectors for removable media such as USBs, systems to hide data in images or in covert disk areas ("Brutal Kangaroo") and to keep its malware infestations going.
Many of these infection efforts are pulled together by the CIA's Automated Implant Branch (AIB), which has developed several attack systems for automated infestation and control of CIA malware, such as "Assassin" and "Medusa".
Attacks against Internet infrastructure and webservers are developed by the CIA's Network Devices Branch (NDB).
The CIA has developed automated multi-platform malware attack and control systems covering Windows, Mac OS X, Solaris, Linux and more, such as EDB's "HIVE" and the related "Cutthroat" and "Swindle" tools, which are described in the examples section far below.
CIA 'hoarded' vulnerabilities ("zero days")
In the wake of Edward Snowden's leaks about the NSA, the U.S. technology industry secured a commitment from the Obama administration that the executive would disclose on an ongoing basis - rather than hoard - serious vulnerabilities, exploits, bugs or "zero days" to Apple, Google, Microsoft, and other US-based manufacturers.
Serious vulnerabilities not disclosed to the manufacturers places huge swathes of the population and critical infrastructure at risk to foreign intelligence or cyber criminals who independently discover or hear rumors of the vulnerability.
If the CIA can discover such vulnerabilities so can others.
The U.S. government's commitment to the Vulnerabilities Equities Process came after significant lobbying by US technology companies, who risk losing their share of the global market over real and perceived hidden vulnerabilities.
The government stated that it would disclose all pervasive vulnerabilities discovered after 2010 on an ongoing basis.
"Year Zero" documents show that the CIA breached the Obama administration's commitments. Many of the vulnerabilities used in the CIA's cyber arsenal are pervasive and some may already have been found by rival intelligence agencies or cyber criminals.
As an example, specific CIA malware revealed in "Year Zero" is able to penetrate, infest and control both the Android phone and iPhone software that runs or has run presidential Twitter accounts.
The CIA attacks this software by using undisclosed security vulnerabilities ("zero days") possessed by the CIA but if the CIA can hack these phones then so can everyone else who has obtained or discovered the vulnerability.
As long as the CIA keeps these vulnerabilities concealed from Apple and Google (who make the phones) they will not be fixed, and the phones will remain hackable.
The same vulnerabilities exist for the population at large, including the U.S. Cabinet, Congress, top CEOs, system administrators, security officers and engineers.
By hiding these security flaws from manufacturers like Apple and Google the CIA ensures that it can hack everyone at the expense of leaving everyone hackable.
'Cyberwar' programs are a serious proliferation risk
Cyber 'weapons' are not possible to keep under effective control.
While nuclear proliferation has been restrained by the enormous costs and visible infrastructure involved in assembling enough fissile material to produce a critical nuclear mass, cyber 'weapons', once developed, are very hard to retain.
Cyber 'weapons' are in fact just computer programs which can be pirated like any other. Since they are entirely comprised of information they can be copied quickly with no marginal cost.
Securing such 'weapons' is particularly difficult since the same people who develop and use them have the skills to exfiltrate copies without leaving traces - sometimes by using the very same 'weapons' against the organizations that contain them.
There are substantial price incentives for government hackers and consultants to obtain copies since there is a global "vulnerability market" that will pay hundreds of thousands to millions of dollars for copies of such 'weapons'.
Similarly, contractors and companies who obtain such 'weapons' sometimes use them for their own purposes, obtaining advantage over their competitors in selling 'hacking' services.
Over the last three years the United States intelligence sector, which consists of government agencies such as the CIA and NSA and their contractors, such as Booz Allan Hamilton, has been subject to unprecedented series of data exfiltrations by its own workers.
A number of intelligence community members not yet publicly named have been arrested or subject to federal criminal investigations in separate incidents.
Most visibly, on February 8, 2017 a U.S. federal grand jury indicted Harold T. Martin III with 20 counts of mishandling classified information.
The Department of Justice alleged that it seized some 50,000 gigabytes of information from Harold T. Martin III that he had obtained from classified programs at NSA and CIA, including the source code for numerous hacking tools.
Once a single cyber 'weapon' is 'loose' it can spread around the world in seconds, to be used by peer states, cyber mafia and teenage hackers alike.
U.S. Consulate in Frankfurt is a covert CIA hacker base
In addition to its operations in Langley, Virginia the CIA also uses the U.S. consulate in Frankfurt as a covert base for its hackers covering Europe, the Middle East and Africa.
CIA hackers operating out of the Frankfurt consulate ("Center for Cyber Intelligence Europe" or CCIE) are given diplomatic ("black") passports and State Department cover.
The instructions for incoming CIA hackers make Germany's counter-intelligence efforts appear inconsequential: "Breeze through German Customs because you have your cover-for-action story down pat, and all they did was stamp your passport" Your Cover Story (for this trip) Q: Why are you here? A: Supporting technical consultations at the Consulate. Two earlier WikiLeaks publications give further detail on CIA approaches to customs and secondary screening procedures.
Once in Frankfurt CIA hackers can travel without further border checks to the 25 European countries that are part of the Shengen open border area - including France, Italy and Switzerland.
A number of the CIA's electronic attack methods are designed for physical proximity.
These attack methods are able to penetrate high security networks that are disconnected from the internet, such as police record database. In these cases, a CIA officer, agent or allied intelligence officer acting under instructions, physically infiltrates the targeted workplace.
The attacker is provided with a USB containing malware developed for the CIA for this purpose, which is inserted into the targeted computer. The attacker then infects and exfiltrates data to removable media.
For example, the CIA attack system Fine Dining, provides 24 decoy applications for CIA spies to use.
To witnesses, the spy appears to be running a program showing videos (e.g VLC), presenting slides (Prezi), playing a computer game (Breakout2, 2048) or even running a fake virus scanner (Kaspersky, McAfee, Sophos).
But while the decoy application is on the screen, the underlying system is automatically infected and ransacked.
How the CIA dramatically increased proliferation risks
In what is surely one of the most astounding intelligence own goals in living memory, the CIA structured its classification regime such that for the most market valuable part of "Vault 7", the CIA's, weaponized malware (implants + zero days) Listening Posts (LP) Command and Control (C2) systems, ...the agency has little legal recourse.
The CIA made these systems unclassified.
Why the CIA chose to make its cyber-arsenal unclassified reveals how concepts developed for military use do not easily crossover to the 'battlefield' of cyber 'war'.
To attack its targets, the CIA usually requires that its implants communicate with their control programs over the internet.
If CIA implants, Command & Control and Listening Post software were classified, then CIA officers could be prosecuted or dismissed for violating rules that prohibit placing classified information onto the Internet.
Consequently the CIA has secretly made most of its cyber spying/war code unclassified. The U.S. government is not able to assert copyright either, due to restrictions in the U.S. Constitution.
This means that cyber 'arms' manufactures and computer hackers can freely "pirate" these 'weapons' if they are obtained. The CIA has primarily had to rely on obfuscation to protect its malware secrets.
Conventional weapons such as missiles may be fired at the enemy (i.e. into an unsecured area). Proximity to or impact with the target detonates the ordnance including its classified parts. Hence military personnel do not violate classification rules by firing ordnance with classified parts.
Ordnance will likely explode. If it does not, that is not the operator's intent.
Over the last decade U.S. hacking operations have been increasingly dressed up in military jargon to tap into Department of Defense funding streams.
For instance, attempted "malware injections" (commercial jargon) or "implant drops" (NSA jargon) are being called "fires" as if a weapon was being fired.
However the analogy is questionable.
Unlike bullets, bombs or missiles, most CIA malware is designed to live for days or even years after it has reached its 'target'. CIA malware does not "explode on impact" but rather permanently infests its target. In order to infect target's device, copies of the malware must be placed on the target's devices, giving physical possession of the malware to the target.
To exfiltrate data back to the CIA or to await further instructions the malware must communicate with CIA Command & Control (C2) systems placed on internet connected servers.
But such servers are typically not approved to hold classified information, so CIA command and control systems are also made unclassified.
A successful 'attack' on a target's computer system is more like a series of complex stock maneuvers in a hostile take-over bid or the careful planting of rumors in order to gain control over an organization's leadership rather than the firing of a weapons system.
If there is a military analogy to be made, the infestation of a target is perhaps akin to the execution of a whole series of military maneuvers against the target's territory including observation, infiltration, occupation and exploitation.
Evading forensics and anti-virus
A series of standards lay out CIA malware infestation patterns which are likely to assist forensic crime scene investigators as well as, Apple
  1. Microsoft
  2. Google
  3. Samsung
  4. Nokia
  5. Blackberry
  6. Siemens
  7. anti-virus companies,
...attribute and defend against attacks.
"Tradecraft DO's and DON'Ts" contains CIA rules on how its malware should be written to avoid fingerprints implicating the "CIA, US government, or its witting partner companies" in "forensic review".
Similar secret standards cover the, use of encryption to hide CIA hacker and malware communication (pdf) describing targets & exfiltrated data (pdf) executing payloads (pdf) persisting (pdf), ...in the target's machines over time.
CIA hackers developed successful attacks against most well known anti-virus programs.
These are documented in, AV defeats Personal Security Products Detecting and defeating PSPs PSP/DebuggeRE Avoidance For example, Comodo was defeated by CIA malware placing itself in the Window's "Recycle Bin". While Comodo 6.x has a "Gaping Hole of DOOM".
CIA hackers discussed what the NSA's "Equation Group" hackers did wrong and how the CIA's malware makers could avoid similar exposure.

Examples

The CIA's Engineering Development Group (EDG) management system contains around 500 different projects (only some of which are documented by "Year Zero") each with their own sub-projects, malware and hacker tools.
The majority of these projects relate to tools that are used for,
penetration infestation ("implanting") control exfiltration
Another branch of development focuses on the development and operation of Listening Posts (LP) and Command and Control (C2) systems used to communicate with and control CIA implants.
Special projects are used to target specific hardware from routers to smart TVs.
Some example projects are described below, but see the table of contents for the full list of projects described by WikiLeaks' "Year Zero".
UMBRAGE
The CIA's hand crafted hacking techniques pose a problem for the agency.
Each technique it has created forms a "fingerprint" that can be used by forensic investigators to attribute multiple different attacks to the same entity.
This is analogous to finding the same distinctive knife wound on multiple separate murder victims. The unique wounding style creates suspicion that a single murderer is responsible.
As soon one murder in the set is solved then the other murders also find likely attribution.
The CIA's Remote Devices Branch's UMBRAGE group collects and maintains a substantial library of attack techniques 'stolen' from malware produced in other states including the Russian Federation.
With UMBRAGE and related projects the CIA cannot only increase its total number of attack types but also misdirect attribution by leaving behind the "fingerprints" of the groups that the attack techniques were stolen from.
UMBRAGE components cover,
keyloggers
  1. password collection
  2. webcam capture
  3. data destruction
  4. persistence
  5. privilege escalation
  6. stealth
  7. anti-virus (PSP) avoidance
  8. survey techniques

Fine Dining
Fine Dining comes with a standardized questionnaire i.e menu that CIA case officers fill out.
The questionnaire is used by the agency's OSB (Operational Support Branch) to transform the requests of case officers into technical requirements for hacking attacks (typically "exfiltrating" information from computer systems) for specific operations.
The questionnaire allows the OSB to identify how to adapt existing tools for the operation, and communicate this to CIA malware configuration staff.
The OSB functions as the interface between CIA operational staff and the relevant technical support staff.
Among the list of possible targets of the collection are,
  • 'Asset'
  • 'Liason Asset'
  • 'System Administrator'
  • 'Foreign Information Operations'
  • 'Foreign Intelligence Agencies'
  • 'Foreign Government Entities'
Notably absent is any reference to extremists or transnational criminals. The 'Case Officer' is also asked to specify the environment of the target like the type of computer, operating system used, Internet connectivity and installed anti-virus utilities (PSPs) as well as a list of file types to be exfiltrated like Office documents, audio, video, images or custom file types.
The 'menu' also asks for information if recurring access to the target is possible and how long unobserved access to the computer can be maintained.
This information is used by the CIA's 'JQJIMPROVISE' software (see below) to configure a set of CIA malware suited to the specific needs of an operation.
Improvise (JQJIMPROVISE)
  1. 'Improvise' is a toolset for configuration, post-processing, payload setup and execution vector
  2. selection for survey/exfiltration tools supporting all major operating systems like,
  3. Windows (Bartender)
  4. MacOS (JukeBox)
  5. Linux (DanceFloor)
  6. Its configuration utilities like Margarita allows the NOC (Network Operation Center) to customize tools
based on requirements from 'Fine Dining' questionnaires.
HIVE
HIVE is a multi-platform CIA malware suite and its associated control software.
The project provides customizable implants for Windows, Solaris, MikroTik (used in internet routers) and Linux platforms and a Listening Post (LP)/Command and Control (C2) infrastructure to communicate with these implants.
The implants are configured to communicate via HTTPS with the webserver of a cover domain; each operation utilizing these implants has a separate cover domain and the infrastructure can handle any number of cover domains.
Each cover domain resolves to an IP address that is located at a commercial VPS (Virtual Private Server) provider.
The public-facing server forwards all incoming traffic via a VPN to a 'Blot' server that handles actual connection requests from clients.
It is setup for optional SSL client authentication: if a client sends a valid client certificate (only implants can do that), the connection is forwarded to the 'Honeycomb' toolserver that communicates with the implant.
If a valid certificate is missing (which is the case if someone tries to open the cover domain website by accident), the traffic is forwarded to a cover server that delivers an unsuspicious looking website.
The Honeycomb toolserver receives exfiltrated information from the implant; an operator can also task the implant to execute jobs on the target computer, so the toolserver acts as a C2 (command and control) server for the implant.
Similar functionality (though limited to Windows) is provided by the RickBobby project.
See the classified user and developer guides for HIVE.

Frequently Asked Questions

Why now?
WikiLeaks published as soon as its verification and analysis were ready. In February the Trump administration has issued an Executive Order calling for a "Cyberwar" review to be prepared within 30 days.
While the review increases the timeliness and relevance of the publication it did not play a role in setting the publication date.
Redactions
Names, email addresses and external IP addresses have been redacted in the released pages (70,875 redactions in total) until further analysis is complete. Over-redaction: Some items may have been redacted that are not employees, contractors, targets or otherwise related to the agency, but are, for example, authors of documentation for otherwise public projects that are used by the agency.
Identity vs. person: the redacted names are replaced by user IDs (numbers) to allow readers to assign multiple pages to a single author. Given the redaction process used a single person may be represented by more than one assigned identifier but no identifier refers to more than one real person.
Archive attachments (zip, tar.gz, ...), are replaced with a PDF listing all the file names in the archive. As the archive content is assessed it may be made available; until then the archive is redacted.
Attachments with other binary content, are replaced by a hex dump of the content to prevent accidental invocation of binaries that may have been infected with weaponized CIA malware. As the content is assessed it may be made available; until then the content is redacted.
Tens of thousands of routable IP addresses references, (including more than 22 thousand within the United States) that correspond to possible targets, CIA covert listening post servers, intermediary and test systems, are redacted for further exclusive investigation.
Binary files of non-public origin, are only available as dumps to prevent accidental invocation of CIA malware infected binaries.
Organizational Chart
The organizational chart (far above image) corresponds to the material published by WikiLeaks so far.
Since the organizational structure of the CIA below the level of Directorates is not public, the placement of the EDG and its branches within the org chart of the agency is reconstructed from information contained in the documents released so far.
It is intended to be used as a rough outline of the internal organization; please be aware that the reconstructed org chart is incomplete and that internal reorganizations occur frequently.
Wiki pages
"Year Zero" contains 7818 web pages with 943 attachments from the internal development groupware. The software used for this purpose is called Confluence, a proprietary software from Atlassian.
Webpages in this system (like in Wikipedia) have a version history that can provide interesting insights on how a document evolved over time; the 7818 documents include these page histories for 1136 latest versions.
The order of named pages within each level is determined by date (oldest first). Page content is not present if it was originally dynamically created by the Confluence software (as indicated on the re-constructed page).
What time period is covered?
The years 2013 to 2016. The sort order of the pages within each level is determined by date (oldest first).
WikiLeaks has obtained the CIA's creation/last modification date for each page but these do not yet appear for technical reasons. Usually the date can be discerned or approximated from the content and the page order.
If it is critical to know the exact time/date contact WikiLeaks.
What is "Vault 7"
"Vault 7" is a substantial collection of material about CIA activities obtained by WikiLeaks.
When was each part of "Vault 7" obtained?
Part one was obtained recently and covers through 2016. Details on the other parts will be available at the time of publication.
Is each part of "Vault 7" from a different source?
Details on the other parts will be available at the time of publication.
What is the total size of "Vault 7"?
The series is the largest intelligence publication in history.
How did WikiLeaks obtain each part of "Vault 7"?
Sources trust WikiLeaks to not reveal information that might help identify them.
Isn't WikiLeaks worried that the CIA will act against its staff to stop the series?
No. That would be certainly counter-productive.
Has WikiLeaks already 'mined' all the best stories?
No. WikiLeaks has intentionally not written up hundreds of impactful stories to encourage others to find them and so create expertise in the area for subsequent parts in the series. They're there.
Look. Those who demonstrate journalistic excellence may be considered for early access to future parts.
Won't other journalists find all the best stories before me?
Unlikely. There are very considerably more stories than there are journalists or academics who are in a position to write them.
submitted by CuteBananaMuffin to conspiracy [link] [comments]

Groestlcoin 6th Anniversary Release

Introduction

Dear Groestlers, it goes without saying that 2020 has been a difficult time for millions of people worldwide. The groestlcoin team would like to take this opportunity to wish everyone our best to everyone coping with the direct and indirect effects of COVID-19. Let it bring out the best in us all and show that collectively, we can conquer anything.
The centralised banks and our national governments are facing unprecedented times with interest rates worldwide dropping to record lows in places. Rest assured that this can only strengthen the fundamentals of all decentralised cryptocurrencies and the vision that was seeded with Satoshi's Bitcoin whitepaper over 10 years ago. Despite everything that has been thrown at us this year, the show must go on and the team will still progress and advance to continue the momentum that we have developed over the past 6 years.
In addition to this, we'd like to remind you all that this is Groestlcoin's 6th Birthday release! In terms of price there have been some crazy highs and lows over the years (with highs of around $2.60 and lows of $0.000077!), but in terms of value– Groestlcoin just keeps getting more valuable! In these uncertain times, one thing remains clear – Groestlcoin will keep going and keep innovating regardless. On with what has been worked on and completed over the past few months.

UPDATED - Groestlcoin Core 2.18.2

This is a major release of Groestlcoin Core with many protocol level improvements and code optimizations, featuring the technical equivalent of Bitcoin v0.18.2 but with Groestlcoin-specific patches. On a general level, most of what is new is a new 'Groestlcoin-wallet' tool which is now distributed alongside Groestlcoin Core's other executables.
NOTE: The 'Account' API has been removed from this version which was typically used in some tip bots. Please ensure you check the release notes from 2.17.2 for details on replacing this functionality.

How to Upgrade?

Windows
If you are running an older version, shut it down. Wait until it has completely shut down (which might take a few minutes for older versions), then run the installer.
OSX
If you are running an older version, shut it down. Wait until it has completely shut down (which might take a few minutes for older versions), run the dmg and drag Groestlcoin Core to Applications.
Ubuntu
http://groestlcoin.org/forum/index.php?topic=441.0

Other Linux

http://groestlcoin.org/forum/index.php?topic=97.0

Download

Download the Windows Installer (64 bit) here
Download the Windows Installer (32 bit) here
Download the Windows binaries (64 bit) here
Download the Windows binaries (32 bit) here
Download the OSX Installer here
Download the OSX binaries here
Download the Linux binaries (64 bit) here
Download the Linux binaries (32 bit) here
Download the ARM Linux binaries (64 bit) here
Download the ARM Linux binaries (32 bit) here

Source

ALL NEW - Groestlcoin Moonshine iOS/Android Wallet

Built with React Native, Moonshine utilizes Electrum-GRS's JSON-RPC methods to interact with the Groestlcoin network.
GRS Moonshine's intended use is as a hot wallet. Meaning, your keys are only as safe as the device you install this wallet on. As with any hot wallet, please ensure that you keep only a small, responsible amount of Groestlcoin on it at any given time.

Features

Download

iOS
Android

Source

ALL NEW! – HODL GRS Android Wallet

HODL GRS connects directly to the Groestlcoin network using SPV mode and doesn't rely on servers that can be hacked or disabled.
HODL GRS utilizes AES hardware encryption, app sandboxing, and the latest security features to protect users from malware, browser security holes, and even physical theft. Private keys are stored only in the secure enclave of the user's phone, inaccessible to anyone other than the user.
Simplicity and ease-of-use is the core design principle of HODL GRS. A simple recovery phrase (which we call a Backup Recovery Key) is all that is needed to restore the user's wallet if they ever lose or replace their device. HODL GRS is deterministic, which means the user's balance and transaction history can be recovered just from the backup recovery key.

Features

Download

Main Release (Main Net)
Testnet Release

Source

ALL NEW! – GroestlcoinSeed Savior

Groestlcoin Seed Savior is a tool for recovering BIP39 seed phrases.
This tool is meant to help users with recovering a slightly incorrect Groestlcoin mnemonic phrase (AKA backup or seed). You can enter an existing BIP39 mnemonic and get derived addresses in various formats.
To find out if one of the suggested addresses is the right one, you can click on the suggested address to check the address' transaction history on a block explorer.

Features

Live Version (Not Recommended)

https://www.groestlcoin.org/recovery/

Download

https://github.com/Groestlcoin/mnemonic-recovery/archive/master.zip

Source

ALL NEW! – Vanity Search Vanity Address Generator

NOTE: NVidia GPU or any CPU only. AMD graphics cards will not work with this address generator.
VanitySearch is a command-line Segwit-capable vanity Groestlcoin address generator. Add unique flair when you tell people to send Groestlcoin. Alternatively, VanitySearch can be used to generate random addresses offline.
If you're tired of the random, cryptic addresses generated by regular groestlcoin clients, then VanitySearch is the right choice for you to create a more personalized address.
VanitySearch is a groestlcoin address prefix finder. If you want to generate safe private keys, use the -s option to enter your passphrase which will be used for generating a base key as for BIP38 standard (VanitySearch.exe -s "My PassPhrase" FXPref). You can also use VanitySearch.exe -ps "My PassPhrase" which will add a crypto secure seed to your passphrase.
VanitySearch may not compute a good grid size for your GPU, so try different values using -g option in order to get the best performances. If you want to use GPUs and CPUs together, you may have best performances by keeping one CPU core for handling GPU(s)/CPU exchanges (use -t option to set the number of CPU threads).

Features

Usage

https://github.com/Groestlcoin/VanitySearch#usage

Download

Source

ALL NEW! – Groestlcoin EasyVanity 2020

Groestlcoin EasyVanity 2020 is a windows app built from the ground-up and makes it easier than ever before to create your very own bespoke bech32 address(es) when whilst not connected to the internet.
If you're tired of the random, cryptic bech32 addresses generated by regular Groestlcoin clients, then Groestlcoin EasyVanity2020 is the right choice for you to create a more personalised bech32 address. This 2020 version uses the new VanitySearch to generate not only legacy addresses (F prefix) but also Bech32 addresses (grs1 prefix).

Features

Download

Source

Remastered! – Groestlcoin WPF Desktop Wallet (v2.19.0.18)

Groestlcoin WPF is an alternative full node client with optional lightweight 'thin-client' mode based on WPF. Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) is one of Microsoft's latest approaches to a GUI framework, used with the .NET framework. Its main advantages over the original Groestlcoin client include support for exporting blockchain.dat and including a lite wallet mode.
This wallet was previously deprecated but has been brought back to life with modern standards.

Features

Remastered Improvements

Download

Source

ALL NEW! – BIP39 Key Tool

Groestlcoin BIP39 Key Tool is a GUI interface for generating Groestlcoin public and private keys. It is a standalone tool which can be used offline.

Features

Download

Windows
Linux :
 pip3 install -r requirements.txt python3 bip39\_gui.py 

Source

ALL NEW! – Electrum Personal Server

Groestlcoin Electrum Personal Server aims to make using Electrum Groestlcoin wallet more secure and more private. It makes it easy to connect your Electrum-GRS wallet to your own full node.
It is an implementation of the Electrum-grs server protocol which fulfils the specific need of using the Electrum-grs wallet backed by a full node, but without the heavyweight server backend, for a single user. It allows the user to benefit from all Groestlcoin Core's resource-saving features like pruning, blocks only and disabled txindex. All Electrum-GRS's feature-richness like hardware wallet integration, multi-signature wallets, offline signing, seed recovery phrases, coin control and so on can still be used, but connected only to the user's own full node.
Full node wallets are important in Groestlcoin because they are a big part of what makes the system be trust-less. No longer do people have to trust a financial institution like a bank or PayPal, they can run software on their own computers. If Groestlcoin is digital gold, then a full node wallet is your own personal goldsmith who checks for you that received payments are genuine.
Full node wallets are also important for privacy. Using Electrum-GRS under default configuration requires it to send (hashes of) all your Groestlcoin addresses to some server. That server can then easily spy on your transactions. Full node wallets like Groestlcoin Electrum Personal Server would download the entire blockchain and scan it for the user's own addresses, and therefore don't reveal to anyone else which Groestlcoin addresses they are interested in.
Groestlcoin Electrum Personal Server can also broadcast transactions through Tor which improves privacy by resisting traffic analysis for broadcasted transactions which can link the IP address of the user to the transaction. If enabled this would happen transparently whenever the user simply clicks "Send" on a transaction in Electrum-grs wallet.
Note: Currently Groestlcoin Electrum Personal Server can only accept one connection at a time.

Features

Download

Windows
Linux / OSX (Instructions)

Source

UPDATED – Android Wallet 7.38.1 - Main Net + Test Net

The app allows you to send and receive Groestlcoin on your device using QR codes and URI links.
When using this app, please back up your wallet and email them to yourself! This will save your wallet in a password protected file. Then your coins can be retrieved even if you lose your phone.

Changes

Download

Main Net
Main Net (FDroid)
Test Net

Source

UPDATED – Groestlcoin Sentinel 3.5.06 (Android)

Groestlcoin Sentinel is a great solution for anyone who wants the convenience and utility of a hot wallet for receiving payments directly into their cold storage (or hardware wallets).
Sentinel accepts XPUB's, YPUB'S, ZPUB's and individual Groestlcoin address. Once added you will be able to view balances, view transactions, and (in the case of XPUB's, YPUB's and ZPUB's) deterministically generate addresses for that wallet.
Groestlcoin Sentinel is a fork of Groestlcoin Samourai Wallet with all spending and transaction building code removed.

Changes

Download

Source

UPDATED – P2Pool Test Net

Changes

Download

Pre-Hosted Testnet P2Pool is available via http://testp2pool.groestlcoin.org:21330/static/

Source

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List of Android roguelike ports

Hear me out android users, here is the list of android roguelike ports. Now, there are games like Shattered Pixel Dungeon(And other Pixel Dungeon forks), Wazhack, Caves, Pathos: Nethack Codex, Cardinal Quest 2, Ananias, Sproggiwood, Hoplite, HyperRogue, ENYO, MicRogue, NEO Scavenger, Buriedbornes, Desktop Dungeons, Decknight, Delver, Quest of Dungeons, Dungeon Cards etc. in play store. Most of these games are either android exclusive or very well made like an exclusive game. But there are also lot of ports:
1-Nethack and Unnethack by gurr: Perfect. Believe or not, lot of nethack players now play it on mobile. Interface and controls are just very well designed.
https://play.google.com/store/apps/developer?id=gurr
2-Powder by Jeff Lait: Great port. You can play the Android port or gba version via emulator. Android port is actually beta so it has some problems like you can't adjust the size of buttons, they are little bit small for my phone. Also moving by touch controls isn't like pixel dungeon, you can't tap your destination and wait for your character to reach there automatically like in pixel dungeon. The alternative, directional buttons are better, but you have to play with "safewalk" on which prevents you from bumping into dangerous monsters and attack them unintentionally. You can drag "safewalk" from COMMAND MENU(Not setting menu) to actionbar and make it a shortcut, activate the battle mode whenever you need then disable it when the fight is over. Also i disable "Moving by screen taps" since i use d-pad, sometimes you mistakenly tap screen when you trying to tap d-pad: Settings>Buttons>Screen Tap>Disable. The good thing is, at least Android version has quickslots and it also runs faster than the gba version. For quickslots: i drag sleep and history to left column, safewalk and search to right column. One last thing, you have to "rotate view" in order to play it in landscape mode, otherwise it will be terrible. In gba version game runs slow and there are no quickslots but you can bind commands to a,b,l,r buttons if you tap "select" in command menu or just tap l,r when you are on command. You can use safewalk by enabling it from SETTINGS MENU, then bind the safewalk from COMMAND MENU(Yes there are two safewalk options from different menus) to a button, if you want to attack a monster or open a door HOLD(Not tap) that safewalk button and choose direction. If saving and loading the game is problematic you can save and load it via emulator's save slot. Plus, gba has some problems about memory that causes game to crash, so if your game started to lagging, use options>collapse>collapse the dungeon for clearing the memory, this removes items in past stages. Jeff Lait said collapsing it in every 10 floor is good idea.
(Android beta 3 is on "news" page(2016), gba version is on "download" page) http://www.zincland.com/powde
3-Brogue by bilgencoskun: A brand new Brogue port. Very good port if you do some adjustments in conf. file. Other than that, it has a d-pad. There is also zoom option for small screens:
https://github.com/bilgincoskun/brogue-android-port/releases/
I shared my settings file and some tips about controls in here:
https://www.reddit.com/PixelDungeon/comments/efm4y9/brogue_on_android/
4-Sil by shaosil: Great. Just play it in landscape mode, reduce the keyboard transparency(30 is good). Use the numpad in keyboard for moving. There isn't too many keys in Sil. For example you can use items with one key(u) and there are alternatives for some keys. For example you can't use shift for moving continously so use "." instead. Controls are easy but if you don't like a transparent keyboard that covers half of the screen(Because it can be confusing when you trying to distinguish the ascii graphics from keyboard), there is nothing you can do.
https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.gmail.ShaosilDev.Sil.SilActivity
5-DCSS by barbs: Great. Now the port is just like Sil. So do what i'm told in Sil section. Of course it requires more keys than Sil but you will mostly use "o"(auto-explore) and "tab"(auto-attack). Also, you can adjust your RC file(It's like settings). If you have bluetooth keyboard you can use it(For example you can't do that in Sil port) to make controls way easier. By the way this port is better than online dcss in phones, but online port could be better on tablets:
https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.crawlmb
6-CDDA by CleverRaven: Good, updated and playable version of cdda, there are lot of people who use it:
https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.cleverraven.cataclysmdda
7-Red Rogue by aaron steed: Perfect controls. You can download it for free in:
https://st33d.itch.io/red-rogue
Or support the dev by buying it:
https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=air.air.RedRogue
8-Angband by cuboideb development: A new port, i don't really know it.
https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.rephial.xyangband
9-Prime by rumly111: It can be playable i guess? Maker of this port also made doomrl port but it doesn't work. Now in this port there is no transparent keyboard but he puts transparent movement keys and some other keys on screen. You can also use your system's keyboard by tapping your phone's back button on navigation bar or tap to "kbd" icon on screen. It uses more keys than Sil but still not many as far as i know. You can even scrolling menus(You can also use scrolling up or down to move your character up or down, so there are few bugs it seems):
https://sourceforge.net/projects/prime-roguelike-android/
Reddit page: https://www.reddit.com/roguelikes/comments/79usjm/prime_android_port/
10-ADOM, Troubles of Middle-Earth or any other DOS roguelike: Probably hard to play due to the complex keyboard usage(You can use bluetooth keyboard though) of these old games, but you can still try them:
https://steamcommunity.com/sharedfiles/filedetails/?id=731346078
11-Roguelike Classics(Rogue, Larn, Moria): Hard to play due to complex keyboard usage. And it's not in play store anymore. In my opinion, best way to play original Rogue on Android is playing AGB Rogue via gba emulator(Somehow most gba emulators can't detect agb rogue but "my boy!" works). There is also AGB Hack for gba:
AGB Rogue: https://www.gbadev.org/demos.php?showinfo=585
AGB Hack: https://www.gbadev.org/demos.php?showinfo=680
12-We are Hejickle by pubby: An unbalanced NES roguelike which has plenty of content, you just need an NES emulator:
http://pubby.github.io/hejickle.html
13-DSCrawl by sasq (Linley's Dungeon Crawl on DS): Nice port on DS, good adaptation. Use Drastic(Best DS emulator but it's not free) emulator to play it. Or if you want a free emulator use "NDS Emulator - For Android 6". DS emulators are generally problematic in android so i can't open the game on other emulators. You have to save the game in save states, because in-game save doesn't work. But if you download dldi patched version you can use in-game saves but dldi is working only on Drastic as far as i know. If you have Drastic and want to use dldi version you need to download drastic image file and put it in your Drastic folder. You can find the image file in here: https://www.reddit.com/EmulationOnAndroid/comments/5amciy/november_2016_game_of_the_month_meteora/
Standard version:
http://web.archive.org/web/20070531065542/http://www.nightmode.org/dscrawl/
Dldi version(Download the link on "binaries" section called "dscrawl dldi-b1":
http://errabes.free.fpogo2/
Some informations about DSCrawl:
https://sasq64.github.io/ds-crawl.html
ROGUELITE BONUS:
1-Spelunky: Could be a challenge on mobile since it's a hard platform game but you can try:
https://yancharkin.itch.io/spelunky-classic-hd
2-Nuclear Throne: I have no idea about this, but some people like it.
https://toncho.itch.io/nuclear-throne-mobile
3- Risk of Rain: I don't know anything about this but there are some people in youtube playing this on android.
https://www.reddit.com/AndroidGaming/comments/56z9ks/risk_of_rain_on_android_unofficial/
Final words: We will get caves of qud and ultimate adom for android in next years, so wait for it...
submitted by ZackZparrow to roguelikes [link] [comments]

Reichenbach Fall Theory

Sherlock Fall Theory
Okay, so it doesn’t entirely matter how Sherlock survived the fall but the lead up to that.
Sherlock knows that he must die to “Complete his [Moriarty’s] game” (see 1:01:45 ish) because, with Sherlock dead, nobody can prove that Sherlock was real and not a fraud. So Sherlock knew he was going to die and he chose the location of where he was going to “die”, this gave him the advantage of being able to plan his fake death.
Sherlock also needs a way to lure Moriarty to the building without him knowing the outcome of double suicide. So he uses the code as an excuse. Sherlock initially was willing to believe Jim did have some sort of key. I would think this because of the way he acts around people even when he is alone. John’s finger taps helped Sherlock realize the binary code angle Jim had been playing and he could recreate the scene because he has a photographic memory or simply because he has the camera still that was bugged in his room which he didn’t destroy so could easily be hacked to show the events of the day that Jim had visited.
We can tell Sherlock really did only figure it out at that point because no one was watching him do it (John was turned away), so there was no one in-universe for him to be putting on an act for. Once Sherlock figured out that the finger taps were meant to be like binary code, I think he also immediately understood that the key never existed. He went on from that point pretending he really believed in it, though. That’s why he sent Jim the “Got something of yours you might want back” text message as a lure.
Also, the code that Sherlock taps back seems to be different from that of Moriarty’s. We know that the code was supposed to be the rhythm to a Bach song again the whole Reichenbach theme. Previously on Moriarty retells the story of how the composer was dying and saw his son playing an unfinished song so he finishes it himself, maybe Sherlock is finishing the song? We know the code means nothing though so I’m not sure this really matters.
Moriarty has also said to him “You need me” because Moriarty believes that Sherlock is similar to him, he views life as boring and “games” are the only interesting thing and reason to stay alive.
Now we know Moriarty was going to kill himself too, the whole fact that Sherlock knew he would have to kill himself proves that, because Moriarty views life as boring and his only distraction was Sherlock, and since Moriarty wanted Sherlock to kill himself he would have wanted to die himself too as there would be no reason for him to want to stay alive since it’s “boring”. Also to prove that Moriarty was always going to kill himself was the fact that he had a gun on him. He would have no reason to have a gun with him if the whole point was Sherlock had to kill himself. Sherlock had to kill himself because that would show that he died because everyone was finding out about him being a fraud. Moriarty already also has an incentive for Sherlock to jump which is the people he cares about, so he wouldn’t need to threaten him with a gun.
Moriarty was always going to kill himself.
The only complication Sherlock had was aggravating Moriarty enough that he would kill himself before Sherlock had to fake his suicide because if Moriarty was alive he would see Sherlock had not properly killed himself.
Sherlock does this by taunting him. “I don’t have to die if I’ve got you.” He’s telling Moriarty that he knows Moriarty could call of the gunmen, he’s telling him, you have to die first so that I have no other option. Of course, that isn’t all though. Sherlock also tells him “I am you.” And we know Moriarty needs Sherlock to live. He’s tricking Moriarty into pretending to confirm that Sherlock needs Moriarty too. He’s tricking him by making him think that Sherlock will want to die if Moriarty is dead, just like Moriarty wants to die if Sherlock is dead. More evidence is Sherlock says “You want me to shake hands with you in Hell? I shall not disappoint you.” He’s literally telling him that I will go to Hell and see you. He’s pretending to promise he will kill himself alongside Moriarty. So Moriarty decided he can kill two birds with one stone, take away Sherlock’s false hope that he could save his friends and also get Sherlock to kill himself because Sherlock has tricked him into believing that he needs him.
So Moriarty kills himself before Sherlock giving Sherlock the ability to fake his own death without Moriarty watching over him.
Sherlock knows that people could be watching him/Moriarty so he must act in ways that make everything looks unexpected. Sherlock is a high-functioning sociopath, he doesn’t care if Moriarty is dead, he wouldn’t have been freaking out like he is seen doing. It’s all an act, for people who may be watching.
He also ensures John is separated from him by a big building so he can not see the fake fall procedure. If John can’t see the fake fall then neither can the gunman aiming at John.
As to how Sherlock killed himself doesn’t entirely matter although it was most likely a net of some kind at the bottom to lessen his fall, he balances himself in the air to make sure he remains horizontal possibly to land on a mat of some sort. The entire time John is either separated by the building or a bus or a garbage truck, probably not real ones, but to hide the netting/equipment. People also in these vehicles most likely were the ones who sprayed blood on him too. How he stopped his heartbeat was done by the ball he was seen playing with only moments earlier which he put under his armpits which hides his pulse.
TL;DR - Sherlock knew they were both going to kill themselves he just needed to ensure that Moriarty did it first so he could fake his death.
submitted by mayziekm to Sherlock [link] [comments]

MAME 0.201

MAME 0.201

It’s the end of another month, and time for your scheduled MAME release, with more of everything we know you love. In a last-minute update, we slipped in a major performance optimisation for bgfx video output. It’s particularly noticeable when using cropped artwork, and there’s no longer a big performance penalty for bringing up the menu over the emulation on macOS. Another core improvement is support for TAP/TUN networking on Windows, providing a big performance improvement when connecting an emulated system to a network on the host machine.
From the department of things considered lost to time, MAME 0.201 allows you to play as Chuby the octopus, in the incredibly elusive Spanish game Night Mare. Unfortunately the sound ROMs were missing, so you won’t be able to hear Chuby speak, and we still need to be on the lookout for the export version known as Clean Octopus. And speaking of rare games from Spain, two more Magnet System titles have been dumped: A Day in Space and The Burning Cavern.
Newly dumped versions of supported arcade games include prototypes of Halley’s Comet (Taito) and Dog Fight (Orca), a newer version of the original Master Boy (Gaelco), and the Korean release of Raiden II (Seibu Kaihatsu). A redumped ROM allowed Psychic Force EX to run correctly. The vgmplay logged music player has had a big update in this release, with support for several more sound chips and a comprehensive software list.
And this brings us to audio improvements, which seem to have all crowded their way into this release. We have fixes for long-standing sound bugs in Twin Eagle, Targ and Spectar. Sound in Amazing Maze is no longer cut off after thirty seconds or so. There are some big changes for QSound and Taito Zoom ZSG-2 that should make things sound nicer. There’s also preliminary support for the NEC PC-FX’s HuC6230 SoundBox, but be aware it has a DC offset so you’ll hear a big thud when you start or stop it.
Recent improvements in NEC PC-98 emulation have seen dozens of titles promoted to working status, and we’ve added another batch of dumps from Neo Kobe Collection. There are a number of fixes that improve TI-99 floppy and cassette support in this release. InterPro systems can now be used via a serial terminal in configurations without a video card or keyboard. At long last, the Apple //c Plus can boot from its internal floppy drive. Other improvements to computer emulation include better keyboard support for Amiga systems, and improved GPU emulation for the HP Integral PC.
Of course, you can get source and Windows binaries from the download page.

MAMETesters Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

Clones promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions

Software list items promoted to working

New NOT_WORKING software list additions

Translations added or modified

Source Changes

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